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                          Posts with keyword: reputation


                          Google Plus: On Trust, Reputation, Pseudonyms, and Value

                          Google made an architectural decision to require real names, rather than pseudonyms, on Google Plus. The result is a platform that encourages better reciprocal acts and thus creates more value, for users as well as Google, than one based on pseudonyms.
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                          Suing Over Reputation

                          This Ars Technica story tells of an ebay seller who is suing a buyer over negative feedback. Since eBay removed negative feedback for buyers, there's no other way for sellers to leverage what could be vindictive buyers. On the other side, that leverage sometimes leads to buyers being unwilling to leave feedback. Of course the threat of a lawsuit does that in spades. eBay has a reputation problem they need to solve or the whole thing could fall down. As the article concludes: [S]ellers were a bit miffed at eBay's feedback changes, and organized a week-long strike that resulted
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                          Jamie Lewis on the Importance of Relationships (DIDW 08)

                          Jamie Lewis at DIDW08(click to enlarge) Jamie Lewis gave the opening keynote this morning on the state of digital identity. The first part was pretty straightforward review of where we've been and where we are. Then Jamie started riffing on the relationship idea that Burton has been talking about lately. Digital identity exists to enable human experiences online. In human experience, trust (I'd say reputation) is critical. He references Alan Greenspan's book The Age of Turbulance where Greenspan talks about the global economy being based on trust. With current technology we don't enable trust in the way humans use
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                          Relationship Providers

                          Businesses spend a great deal of time and money trying to identify their customers. By "identify" I mean not just get a name and credit card number, but find, learn about, and discover the attributes, preferences, and even desires of customers. They spend millions of dollars on "customer relationship management" (CRM) systems that are really "customer dossier systems" in a quest to manage the identity data they collect about customers. In the same way, customers spend a great deal of effort identifying businesses. Which business sells the product that will meet my needs at a price I'm willing to
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                          Judging Credibility

                          Jeff Jarvis points out the flaws in Newscred. It's very simple --- though that's the problem; credibility isn't so simple. They list articles and you get to "credit" or "discredit" them. These scores are, in turn, compiled for writers and publications. The first and most obvious problem, which TechCrunch points out, is that this is bait for grudges. Fox from one side, the Times from the other will get discredited by their detractors all day long. One man's bias is often the other man's truth. From BuzzMachine ? Blog Archive ? Credibility is not binaryReferenced Tue May 13 2008
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                          Trust-Based Recommendation Systems

                          Reid Andersen from Microsoft Research is talking about trust-based recommendation systems (PDF). To build a personalized recommendation, you need a trust graph among users. What system should you use to determine the recommendation? The researchers use an axiomatic approach. The context of their axiomatic system is social choice theory (see Arrow's impossibility theorem for voting systems from 1951). More recent treatments are Webpage ranking systems (Altman, Teeneholtz, '05). The details are fairly complex, but the basic idea is that by proposing axioms until you get an inconsistency in the axiom set and then backing off and exploring other axioms
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                          Dan Solove on Reputation

                          Clifford Thomson sent me a link to a talk Dan Solove gave at Google on his new book The Future of Reputation. I interviewed Dan on Technometria a while back about his earlier book The Digital Person. Dan's a very interesting speaker and raises important issues in his books and in this video. This is well worth watching if you're interested in the intersection of privacy and reputation in the Internet age.
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                          I'm on Interviews with Innovators

                          A while back Jon Udell interviewed me for his Interviews with Innovators podcast. We talked about reputation.
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                          Reputation at IIW2007B

                          Doc juggles(click to enlarge) I just posted a summary piece from Tuesday at IIW2007B at Between the Lines: Reputation taking center stage. I also have pictures. Look for more IIW coverage with the iiw2007b tag.
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                          Dick Hardt on Trust

                          Dick Hardt is giving a new talk at Defrag. He's talking about trust; his thesis is that trust defrags identity. Much of what's he's saying is right in line with the reputation work (PDF) my students and I have been working on. He makes a critical link to identity: identifiers bind personas together to increase trust. Intuition doesn't work well online because of the absence of clues and the ability to create false context. Institutions haven't done much better. He brings up another key concept this is largely about accountability. Key point: binding behavior from multiple sites together leads
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                          User Centric Reputation Slides

                          Today I gave a talk at AOL in Virginia about reputation. I also had a chance to talk to a small working group on reputation and to the Architecture Council. The discussions were very good and gave me some food for thought. I came away more convinced than ever that what we need to build are reputation systems that bring more cues about people and their actions to bear, in a way that allows the user to control the privacy issues, and with as much emergent behavior as possible to avoid overt configuration. Such a system should reward people
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                          Internet Identity Workshop 2007: Day Three

                          Tuesday dinner at the Monte Carlo in Mountain View(click to enlarge) If you're interested in following blogs about IIW2007, you can look for the iiw2007 tag on Technorati. First thing this morning (after picking up bagels) I went to a presentation on Sxipper, Sxip Identity's login and form filling plug-in for Firefox. I've been using Sxipper since the last IIW and have come to rely on it. When I first started using it, it had some usability problems (at least for me) so I stopped using it for a while. When I switched to Firefox 2.0, however, with automatic
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                          Prabhakar Raghavan on Science for Engaging and Monetizing Audience

                          Prabhakar Raghavan from Yahoo! Research(click to enlarge) Prabhakar Raghavan is giving the morning keynote. He's the head of Yahoo! Research. The title of the talk was "What sciences will Web N.0 take?" But, more accurately, I'd call it "Science for Engaging and Monetizing Audience." Yahoo! takes in editorial, free (including blogs, twitter, pictures, etc.) and commercial content "content." The audience "consumes the content" but also enriches the content. Finally the audience transacts (commerce) with the content. Yahoo! isn't the only one in this business. Google, AOL, MSN, and even NewsCorp are in the business of matching content to audience
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                          User-Centric Identity Tutorial Resources

                          Banff Springs resort. (click to enlarge) I gave my tutorial on user-centric identity today. There were around 40 people there--a good crowd and very interested in identity. I promised that I'd post a list of resources, so here we go. First, my slides in PDF format. Warning: the upload from the hotel is going very slowly, so this probably won't be available until later tonight. Here's the tarball for the demonstration code I did with OpenID. I add authentication to a simple Web application using a separate, general login controller. There are pictures in the slides. It's in Perl.
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                          Sun Supports OpenID and Opens the Question of Reputation

                          Sun announced (or at least Tim did) that Sun's supporting OpenID at openid.sun.com. Sun has taken the additional step of stating that only Sun employees will have IDs there. So, if someone presents an OpenID with a base domain of openid.sun.com, you can be assured that Sun is vouching that they are an employee of Sun. The biggest problem with this set up, of course, is that the attributes of an identifier ought to be transfered orthogonally to the identifier itself. The fact that the URL has a certain form should encode data like whether someone's an employee or
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                          Advanced Analytics in the Anonymized Data Space: Jeff Jonas

                          Jeff Jonas gave a great keynote this morning. (Here's a paper from IEEE Security and Privacy that explains some of this.) This afternoon he's adding context. Literally. Contexts allow seemingly unrelated records to become related. The idea is that two records get created in two different data stores, because of some common event, but the common event is unobservable to the organization and the perceptions around that event are not connected. When the organization queries these data sources to make a decision, the fact that these records are related might not be known. He calls this enterprise amnesia. The
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                          Where is OpenAttributes?

                          Gunnar Peterson, has a thought provoking post on OpenID and attributes. He quote heavily from another interesting post on names from Mike Neuenschwander. The idea is that names, without attributes are not very useful. I agree wholeheartedly with the assertion that we have to get OpenID and other wide-area identities past simple authentication for them to really be useful. Mike says: I understand why from a programmer's perspective, it would be so much more convenient if everybody could simply have one globally unique, unambiguous, resolvable name. But such a quaint design constitutes a wanton disregard for reality. The tech
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                          Random Reputation Ramblings

                          I spent the day with Dan Lulich of iovation and gave a talk about reputation to some of the group. I had a good time and really enjoyed a day of talking about reputation with people who live it everyday. Here's a collection of random insights I had about reputation while preparing my talk and in discussions with Dan and others today. David Brin's book, Transparent Society, has a great discussion of the ways that transparency leads to accountability. The message seems to be that accountability costs privacy. There are ways of using reputation that protects privacy, but still
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                          Reputation for OpenID

                          I'm teaching a graduate class on reputation this semester. I did the same thing last year and the class project was building a reputation framework. The ideas surrounding reputation intrigue me, if you haven't figured that out from reading this blog. I've had various ideas for this semester's project, but finally settled on the idea of reputation for OpenID. With OpenID gaining steam, there are concerns on user side about how to know whether to trust an OpenID provider. Even if you pick someone with obvious standing, like AOL, how do you know if the site you've been redirected
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                          Monkey Pornography, Social Status, and Reputation

                          Britt is further developing his thoughts on relative celebrity. He points to a study that looks at social status in monkeys and their willingness to sacrifice food to look at the faces of high-status individuals and what amounts to monkey pornography. On the flip side, they demand more food to look at the faces of low-status individuals. Male rhesus macaques sacrificed fluid for the opportunity to view female perinea and the faces of high-status monkeys but required fluid overpayment to view the faces of low-status monkeys. Social value was highly consistent across subjects, independent of particular images displayed, and
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                          Relative Celebrity and Reputation

                          Britt's working on a concept he calls Relative Celebrity. The idea is that in the world of the long tail, there is some ranking and "every member of a network must be related to someone who is closer to the action - relatively speaking, a celebrity - and also act as a valued conduit of news, gossip and conjecture for others, acting as that person's relative celebrity." It's an intriguing idea and one that makes me think about reputation and it's value in a global Internet sense. To date, online reputation systems have been localized to a particular Web
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                          Repricocity, Trust, and Reputation

                          Chris Slater presented A Computational Model of Trust and Reputation today in class. The paper introduces three concepts--reputation, reciprocity, and trust--and how they relate to each other. We talk a lot about reputation and trust, but don't often consider reciprocity. They define reciprocity as a "mutual exchange of deeds (such as favor or revenge)." In a reputation system focused on stopping blog comment spam, for example, the engine that calculates the score is calculating reputation, the threshold that you set in your software (e.g. moderate commenters with scores below 20) is the trust metric. Reciprocity is the probability that
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                          The Role of Intellectual Property in Protecting Reputation

                          Today in class, we went over a paper called The Value of a Reputation System by John Kennes and Aaron Schiff (both of The University of Auckland). The paper presents a complicated mathematical model of markets that are similar to eBay and other auction sites, although the example in the paper is "pick-your-own" orchards. I've also been reading Peter Navarro's book The Coming China Wars recently and the two ideas got me thinking about the value of intellectual property in properly functioning markets. In Keenes and Schiff's paper, they model markets where there are product with high and low
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                          Cheap Pseudonyms, Privacy, and Sex Offenders

                          The BBC is reporting on a move by the British government to require convicted sex offenders to register their online identities. Of course, it only takes a minute of thought before you realize that its so easy to get a new email address that registering one doesn't do much good. There are some scary responses to that, like this one: If everyone had a single internet identity for life, like a National Insurance number, this would make it far easier to track people, he said. Child internet safety expert John Carr, of children's charity NCH, said: "This is a
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                          Finding Truth in Crowds

                          The folks at JanRain (the OpenID library builders) have released jyte, a site that allows you to make claims about anything you like and then other people can agree or disagree. It's a well-done Web 2.0 kind of site with lots of cool infographic features, embeddable result bars, comments, tags, and OpenID authentication (what else?). It even let me use my i-name. Hurray! Here's a claim that David Recordon made about Emacs: I'm not sure how that's going to look or even if you have to log in to vote, but we'll see... The idea that people can make
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                          Social Networking Without a Safety Net

                          Jeff Jarvis just got back from Davos where he found plenty of identity-related discussion. Jeff says "One of the thin threads I saw cutting through much of my Davos experience was the notion of identity" and goes on to enumerate many of them, including the trade-off between privacy and reputation and the relationship between reputation and transparency. What caught my eye though, was this: All this opens up lots of opportunities in technology. I said to a couple of my fellow participants at Davos --- a media mogul, an internet entrepreneur --- and I will say it in another
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                          Who Owns Your eBay Data

                          In the Who Owns "You" panel at Supernova (available on IT Conversations) the question came up about eBay reputation. An eBay seller's reputation score is calculated from how other eBay users rate the seller. Does that score belong to the seller, the eBay users who contributed to it, or eBay? Pretty easy actually, when you consider the principles of reputation. The eBay score is eBay's story about the user. They calculate that story and it's pretty simple but still they're the ones deciding the algorithm that's used. The eBay users and eBay jointly own the ratings. That is, each
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                          Computational Reputation

                          I did a session on online reputation (or "computational reputation" as I've taken to calling it to distinguish it from reputation work in other fields). I didn't have time to take notes, but if I find others who have, I'll post an update here. In the meantime, here's the picture of the whiteboard I took and a link to my paper on reputation.
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                          Managing Vendors Before They Manage You

                          On this week's Technometria Podcast, Scott Lemon, Matt Asay and myself are joined by Britt Blaser and Doc Searls. We have a great discussion about how Internet tools can be used to manage vendors instead of them managing us. Doc calls this "vendor resource management." Good name.
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                          In Praise of IT Conversations' Audio Engineers

                          I published a panel discussion of Web 2.0 from SofTECH last week. Listen to it--I think you're like it. In fact I was so sure it was good content that I put it in the production queue against the advice of Paul Figgiani, IT Conversation's Chief Audio Engineer. As we got it, the audio was pretty rough. If you listen to it now, you'd never know it--I was amazed at how well it had cleaned up. All I've got to say is that Steven Ng, the show's audio engineer and Paul are miracle workers. At one point in the
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                          Managing Your Online Reputation--With a Little Help

                          Wired has an article about reputation management services that are springing up on Web. Michael Fertik and his partners originally conceived of ReputationDefender as a way for parents to protect their children from potentially damaging postings to social networking sites like MySpace or Facebook. "I don't like the idea that kids and teenagers might suffer lifelong harm because of momentary mistakes," says Fertik. From Wired News: Delete Your Bad Web RepReferenced Wed Nov 08 2006 15:52:37 GMT-0800 (PST) Of course, the service might be useful to people who are a bit older as well. They charge a monthly fee
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                          Contextual Authority Tagging

                          Terrell Russell has a good post about the wisdom of crowds and expertise and why they're not the same. Crowds are good at giving opinions, but experts have knowledge. Folksonomies are about the wisdom of crowds. Great for classification. Terrell things tags can be used to "[discovering] and [defining] cognitive authority through reputation." He's working on something called contextual authority tagging to fill this gap. Contextual Authority Tagging is the use of folksonomy to discover and define cognitive authority through reputation within communities of users. Authority is granted by individual users to other individual users with regard to their
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                          Reputation at USU

                          I had a good time speaking at USU today. I gave a talk on digital identity and the reputation framework. While I was there I met and got to spend a little time with Justin Ball and Dave Wiley from the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning. They've got a project right now that will require them to choose a cross-domain identity (user-centric ID) system. We had a good discussion of the options.
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                          Yahoo!'s BBAuth: Browser Based Authentication

                          Today Yahoo! announced BBAuth or Browser Base Authentication (I found out from Dave Winer). Google has a similar service. Once a user has logged in to Yahoo! (after a redirection from your site) they specifically authorize your application to retrieve certain user data that you've requested. You then get back a token (one hour TTL) that can be used with Yahoo! APIs to get the data. Jeremy Zawodny says that right now only Yahoo! Photos and Yahoo! Mail are supporting BBAuth. Dan Theurer has a post about getting it ready to go. I'd like to use this in the
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                          Using Reputation to Combat Online Fraud

                          Last week at DIDW, I had the opportunity to sit down with Iovation CTO Dan Lulich. I'd met Dan at the Berkman ID mashup in June, but didn't really know what Iovation did. I found that we had much to talk about: Iovation does reputation. Iovation's reputation services aren't for people--they're for devices. Being able to link devices to undesirable activities and also to the accounts they log into is a great way to combat fraud in online gaming, eCommerce, and other places where money is at stake. Denise Howell just interviewed Iovation's CEO Greg Pierson on IT Conversations.
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                          Vitamins, Pain-killers, and Viagra

                          Dick Hardt(click to enlarge) Dick Hardt intro'd a panel on identity at big sites (meaning eBay, Yahoo!, Google, MSN, and so on). He used a great analogy of vitamins, pain-killers, and Viagra. We've been selling ID Management as vitamins. Everyone knows that they're good for you, but there's no urgency. With pain-killers, there's urgency. Viagra, on the other hand lets people do things they couldn't do before. User-centric identity is a pain-killer for users, but only a vitamin for big sites. How do you turn user centric identity into Viagra? He uses eBay as an example. By using a user-centric,
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                          Undistinguished Identity and Reputation

                          I just posted an article on undistinguished identity and reputation at Between the Lines. People typically don't want their online activities correlated, but reputation is largely built from such correlations. Understanding and coming to terms with the tension between those two facts is going to be a large part of building reputation systems that work. The principles of reputation that Kevin Tew, Devlin Daley, and I discuss in our paper describing our reputation framework are aimed at lessening that tension.
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                          Reputation and eCommerce Site Ratings Survey

                          The other day Devlin Daley pointed out RightCart to me. RightCart is a SaaS shopping cart implemented in Rails. The reason RightCart caught our attention, besides the fact that it's pretty slick, is that it uses RapLeaf's rating system as a way to rate merchants. Coincidentally, the next day, Scott Allen pointed to some survey results he had about Rapleaf and "transactional trust." The survey showed that ratings are the number one way that buyers choose merchants. Ratings are one way that people establish a reputation for a merchant (or a buyer when two-way trust is necessary). One of
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                          A Reputation Framework

                          Today on the Diane Rehm show, Diane's guests were Jennifer Golbeck, research associate, Institute for Advanced computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Md, Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, professor of physics, University of Notre Dame and author of "Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else", and Kathleen Carley, professor, Computer Science, Institute for Software Research, Carnegie Mellon University. The topic was Social Networks and the Web At one point Diane said something like "But you don't know who these people are who are contacting you. This is an identity issue!" Indeed. In fact there are two issues. When Diane says
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                          ClaimID Launches

                          ClaimID has launched. ClaimID is a service that allows you to aggregate and contextualize URLs that are about you. So, if you've got a common name or there's material about you that's hard to find, you can make sure it's findable. If you've got a blog and are good about linking to things about yourself, it probably won't offer much benefit, but for people who don't blog, this could be a valuable service. There's a link to reputation here.
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                          Principles of Reputation

                          Building the open space agenda for day three(click to enlarge) Today was an open space day. The more I participate in open space, the more I'm convinced that it's the right way to do workshops. I wish we'd had two days of open space because the agenda for today was so packed with things I wanted to hear about. The first session I attended was labeled "The Laws of Reputation." I also wanted to go to Marty Schleiff's meeting on XRI, but I felt like I had to do the reputation thing. I don't know that we got to "laws"
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                          Towards and Open Identity Layer

                          The first afternoon session was on Towards and Open Identity Layer and Trusted Exchange: What Might it Look Like? The panelists were Paul Trevithick, Parity Communications; Dale Olds, Novell; Tony Nadalin, IBM; Kim Cameron, Microsoft; and Marc Rotenberg, EPIC. John Clippinger, Berkman Center was the moderator. One of the topics that was discussed was security. Kim Cameron made the point that CardSpace doesn't build all the walls that might need to be built, but it changes the paradigm so that the walls can be built. Marc Rotenberg brought up the issue of electronic voting systems. He says that there
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                          What Signals Are You Sending Out?

                          David Berlind's write-up of Judith Donath's presentation yesterday at the ID Mashup on signaling is well worth reading. Signalling is important for reputation. We don't have the infrastructure, at present, to easily pick up on signals and use them. Should I trust some one with an "edu" TLD in their email address more than a Hotmail account? Probably. Universities, as a rule, vet the people they give email addresses to. Hotmail, obviously, doesn't. Part of the problem is that the signals that are there aren't easy to see. For example, why doesn't my email client (Mail.app) show the URL
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                          Reputation and Wi-Fi

                          I'm sitting in the Ames Courtroom at Harvard Law School right now waiting for day two of the Berkman identity Mashup to begin. I missed yesterday because I wasn't willing to fly out on Father's Day. My panel in identity brokers will be at 9am. As I got here and opened up my laptop, I signed into the Harvard wi-fi network. They allow temporary guest logins; you have to provide an email and telephone number. I don't know what keeps people from just giving them dummy data. Probably nothing. I was thinking, however, that you could use a reputation
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                          Detecting Splogs

                          I went to a session on blogging this afternoon. One talk was by Tim Finin on detecting splogs. He is part of the ebiquity research group at UMBC. He and his students do some interesting work in recognizing splogs. Tim wrote a funny splog bait post to see where it would get picked up. Here's an interesting data point: the in-degree distribution of authentic blogs are described by a power-law, but splogs are not. The same is true of the out-degree. Ping times for real blogs is periodic according to the sleep cycle of the blogger. Splogs ping on
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                          Reputation Podcast

                          Tom Maddox had his podcasting gear at IIW2006 and was interviewing people both days. He was just sitting in the main hall, so there's quite a bit of background noise, but they material is pretty good. So far, he's published the following: Christine Herron Phil Windley Dick Hardt The Intention Economy Doc Searls
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                          Speaking at Yahoo! on Reputation

                          Yahoo!(click to enlarge) I gave a presentation on identity and reputation at Yahoo! today as Chad Dickerson's guest. The talk (slides) introduced user-centric identity and then introduced the reputation framework that my students built. I hope we'll have releasable code and a paper available soon. I'm looking for funding to support further development of the framework. If reputation is interesting to you or your organization, contact me. I'd be happy to talk to you about what we've done and how you might be able to participate.
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                          IIW2006: Wednesday Sessions

                          Randy Farmer leads the skeptic session(click to enlarge) Kaliya started the day with a call for anyone else who wanted to create new sessions and then did a "spectrogram." She put a long piece of tape on the floor and asked questions where people arrayed themselves along the spectrum represented by the tape. She interviewed people at spots on the tape. A good way to get a feel for how the group is thinking about some things. I did my session on reputation and showed off the reputation system we built in my 601 class last semester. Generally well received
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                          MicroID - A Microformat for Claiming Ownership

                          This morning I learned about MicroIDs from Doc Searls. Jeremy Miller has proposed MicroIDs as a microformat that "allows anyone to simply claim verifiable ownership over their own pages and content hosted anywhere." A MicroID is a hash of two hashed values. The first is a verified communication ID (like an email address that you can prove belongs to you). The second is the URI of the site that the content will be published on. You end up with a unique, long string of gibberish that can be put in the header of a Web page or even wrapped
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                          Defining Reputation

                          I defined reputation in a recent post. More specifically, I said that reputation isn't identity. Dick Hardt disagrees. To tell the truth, I hadn't remembered that slide from his famous identity presentation. Dick refers to a definition of reputation from dictionary.com reputation: 3. A specific characteristic or trait ascribed to a person or thing and says To me, this makes it clear that reputation is part of your identity. Phil states that identity data is not transaction data or reputation data. I think it is. An example of transaction data being identity: "I'm the guy that bought that black
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                          Some Thinking About Reputation

                          In my grad class this semester, we're designing and building a reputation system. Today we had some discussions which I wanted to capture and get feedback on. First, the overall idea is that reputation is computed from identity and transactional data. So a reputation, R, is calculated as follows: I == a vector of identities TxI == a vector of transactions on I VI == a vector of verification data on I R = F(I, VI, TxI) Some thoughts Allow users to assert I The system would provide ways for users and others to verify I (forming VI) The
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                          Owning Identity, Not Reputation or Transactions

                          Bob Blakeley, who writes frequently about identity issues has an interesting post entitled On The Absurdity of "Owning One's Identity" in response to Kim Cameron's first law. The first law states: Technical identity systems must only reveal information identifying a user with the user's consent. Bob, rightly, recognizes that this really isn't a law and goes on to give various reasons why it's unenforceable. Drummond Reed points out, that Kim's talking about "technical" systems, not the processes that might be built on top of them. Even so, there are some interesting issues here that point out why identity and
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                          IIW2005: Marry Ruddy on Use Cases

                          Mary Ruddy is speaking on Use Cases for the Social Web. Our hope is that by discussing use cases, we can lay a foundation for later discussion and give everyone a common frame of reference. Mary makes the point that use cases are stories. Keeping the discussion about stories helps people from different technology backgrounds to relate. Use cases: SSO, social commerce (Doc's example or recommender's, reviewers, and affiliates), augmented social networks, Katrina networking (lost and found people), soccer registration, Internet banking authentication, health care, etc. Question: can we move beyond authentication? Mary makes an interesting point that we
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